Showing posts with label Flight training. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Flight training. Show all posts

Monday, 15 June 2020

Wind direction and degrees in Aviation

Wind direction is reported by the direction from which it emanates. It is calculated in degrees clockwise from True north. Wind direction is usually reported in cardinal directions or in azimuth degrees.

For example, if a wind is blowing from the east has a wind direction of 90 degrees, if a wind is blowing from the west it has a wind direction of 270 degrees. Another wind direction example is WSW, or West/Southwest, is a wind from the west that is slightly angled to the south, but is more emphasized on the west.

For more details about wind direction and degree, please refer to the picture below:

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Tuesday, 2 June 2020

What is QNH and QFE?
click to enlarge
In order for pilots to flight their airplanes in accurate separation from each other, they need to know and to set altimeters with the correct values for QNH and QFE.

QNH indicates the atmospheric pressure in relation to mean sea level. It is used to set altimeter with the height above sea level. In other words, if we sit on the ground at an airport and we dial QNH on the altimeter it will display the airport's altitude above sea level. (refer to the picture)

ATC (Air Traffic Control) will provide the current QNH to pilots before take off, or on clearing them to descend below the transition level. Above this level the standard pressure setting of QNH is (1013hPa) and it is used by all airplanes in reference to flight levels for accurate separation.

QFE is the air pressure over specific airfield. It will read zero at the field and once in the air, it will read the height above that field. (refer to the picture)

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Saturday, 23 May 2020

Three V speeds which pilots must use on take off

Every time when pilots need to take off, they will need to comply with the following three V speeds:

V1 - also known as decision speed (the point of no return) is the maximum speed at which pilots can reject the take off, in the event of an emergency situation. Another important fact for V1 speed is that once the speed is reached, pilots must continue and they will must take off no matter the emergency.

Vr - this is the speed when the non-flying pilot says "rotate", and the pilot flying pulls back the control - yoke for Boeing, side stick for Airbus) in order to raise the nose and the aircraft lifts off the ground, and start to climb attitude. This Vr (rotation speed) assures that a lift-off is possible even in case of an engine failure.

V2 - this is the minimum required speed that needs to be maintained up to acceleration altitude, in case of a bird strike or engine failure. In other words, if V2 speed is reached the aircraft can climb safely to the minimum altitude in order to perform a 'Go around' and return back to airport in case of emergency after V1 speed.

Saturday, 16 May 2020

There are 4 types of air turbulence

Turbulence can be described as rough air pockets, or chaotic changes in pressure through which an aircraft is flying. In fact, we have to remain calm when we encounter turbulence as aircrafts are designed to take a huge amount of stress and safety margin in order to withstand such flight conditions.

Along with the seat belt sign on, when we fly through a turbulent area, we may experience things like reduce engine power - this would lower the risk of structural damage and reduce vibration, or cabin service suspension.

In aviation, the turbulence is divided in four types:

 1. Light - this is the least severe, with very small changes in attitude or altitude
 2. Moderate - it is almost the same as light turbulence, but in this case the intensity is greater
 3. Severe - this type is described as abrupt changes in attitude and altitude with huge difference in airspeed. Objects not fastened may move around the cabin and structural damage may occur
 4. Extreme - along with the abrupt attitude and altitude changes, pilots may experience loss of control of the aircraft at times, and structural damage is likely to take place.

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Sunday, 10 May 2020

The big runway numbers and their meaning

All runways are numbered between 01 and 36, which indicate compass bearing in which runways are oriented. For instance, if you are on runway 27, it means that you are actually heading west (270 degrees on a compass.

At big and busy airports such as London Heathrow (LHR), there may be two runways 27 with different letters such as 27L and 27R. In this case, the two letters stand for R-right and L-left, so the air traffic controller will tell pilots where to land at 27L (two-seven-left), or 27R (two-seven-right).